European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)
Topic: Georgia v. Russia - Violations of Human Rights in the 2008 Conflict
2018 marks the 10th year since the Russo-Georgian War, a conflict that lasted five days in the Caucasus region, more specifically in South Ossetia. One of the main factors that led to the war was the suspension by Russia of the air, road, sea, rail postal and financial connections Georgia, as a result of several tensions that were taking place in the region a few years ago.
The case that will be debated on the committee is Georgia v. Russia (I) - nº 13255/07, presented on the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). ECHR is a supranational court established in 1959 by the European Convention on Human Rights. The Court has the main responsibility of oversight the compliance of the Convention in all 47 member states and it has the power to prosecute states that somehow violate the Human Rights standards.
During AMUN the delegates, as judges, will have the opportunity to review the entire history of the region and to judge whether there has been Human Rights violations by the states participating in the conflict during the war. Facts such as the common history in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the interest by western countries in the strategic region for the oil trade, Georgian citizens expelled from Russia and the attacks during the War are some of the points to be debated by the magistrates.
Group of 20 (G20)
Topic A: Reform of the International System
Topic B: Multilateral Crises
People that take part in MUN Conferences are very diverse among them. There are those who feel more comfortable with restricted and well-defined rules of procedures, while other rather committees that allow more freedom. The Group of 20 (G-20) is being built to please both types of preferences.
It will be constituted by the G-20 assembly, focused on the very important topic of reforming the International Financial System. Such discussion is based on the current struggle of the International Community on facing the challenges brought to the economic front through the globalization and integration process. The discussion is expected to be contagious and heated, while each nation defends its interests while dealing with a high dependent system.
On the other hand and simultaneously, the delegates will have the handle receiving immediate international dilemmas and emergencies through State Letters thanks to the meeting Crisis Committee scope. The representations, that will be present in the figure of both the Head of State and the Finances Minister as representative partners, are going to be demanded to work on bilateral and multilateral scopes in a more cordial and direct atmosphere outside the conference room to reach agreements that normally accompany the G-20 events.
In this sense, we hope to conduct multiple committees with the various unexpected topic all inside the Group of 20 meeting. Can you take the pressure?
Grupo do Rio (G-Rio)
Tópico: A Crise Diplomática entre Equador, Colômbia e Venezuela
Em 7 de março de 2008, a 20ª Cúpula de Chefes de Estado e Governo do Grupo do Rio deveria reunir-se em Santo Domingo, na República Dominicana, para debater uma agenda predominantemente climática. Entretanto, em 1º de março, o exército colombiano bombardeou um acampamento das Forças Armadas Revolucionárias da Colômbia (FARC), o que resultou na morte de um de seus líderes, Raúl Reyes, e de outras 22 pessoas. Esse acampamento se localizava na província de Sucúmbios, em território equatoriano, o que gerou uma tensão diplomática sem precedentes entre a Colômbia e o Equador. Acuada pela operação colombiana, a Venezuela também se envolveu na crise, alegando desrespeito à soberania de um Estado aliado.
Os dias seguintes foram marcados por duras críticas de Rafael Correa e Hugo Chávez - presidentes equatoriano e venezuelano - às políticas colombianas de combate às FARC. Tanto Correa quanto Chávez rompeu relações diplomáticas com a Colômbia no dia seguinte ao ataque e mobilizaram seus exércitos para as fronteiras colombianas. O líder venezuelano declarou considerar a operação colombiana como um ato de guerra.
A fim de tentar buscar uma solução pacífica para a crise, o Grupo do Rio alterou às pressas a agenda de sua 20ª Cúpula e reuniu nela os líderes desses países, juntamente ao restante de seus membros. Tal reunião será revivida pelo 21º AMUN, de forma que os presidentes e chanceleres desses Estados dialoguem sob a mediação das demais nações latino-americanas, a fim de resolver o conflito e reparar as violações que a Colômbia é acusada de ter cometido. Dessa forma, a esperança da reunião é afastar os riscos de um conflito armado na América do Sul.
Press Agency (PRESS)
Topic: Media as a Tool to Bringing Down Walls
The motive that guides the Press agencies' work at the 21st AMUN is "Media as a way to bring down walls". With that in mind, our intention is to develop a sense that journalism, communication and the social media have a duty to bring people together, and not to divide them apart.
Our case study is based on Donald Trump's Presidency. The current president of the United States of America is a powerful and relevant character: in his presidential office, he helped to revolutionize how the leader of a country can relate and reach his electorate. Dissemination of misinformation, the so-called "fake news", is a consequence of this new way to communicate. Our article wants to prove that the way Trump's tweets are written and the words he uses can influence what Americans, especially those who live in the south, perceive the Mexicans and the Wall Trump built his candidacy around.
Journalists that choose to be a part of the Press Agency will be able to work either as a Social Media Agent – bringing information to the other delegates through Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, a member of the Press' Blog, or the AMUN TV. Each option is incredibly important and with a part to play in the social interaction between the fact and the audience.
There will be a web newspaper, the Press’ Blog, in which the delegates will learn about the production of news - from the discovery to the final editing process. The journalists responsible for writing will work to acquire and ascertain information and adapt it according to their editorial lines (which they will be able to choose, according to the media vehicles available in the committee they will be covering).
In addition, the AMUN TV will offer to the event delegates an experience in the audiovisual context of journalism. The team of reporters will tell other committees the most important topics of the conference, including their unique resolutions. Furthermore, the television coverage is also responsible to show off the 21st AMUN backstage from a different point of view, presenting methods that can be used to breaking down walls in political situations every day.
Social, Cultural and Humanitarian Committee (SOCHUM)
Topic A: Child, Early and Forced Marriage
Topic B: Combating Intolance and Stigmatization Based on Belief
The Social, Humanitarian & Cultural (SOCHUM) committee’s main role is to approach and discuss agenda items related to social and humanitarian affairs and humanitarian rights, which includes the promotion of women’s rights, the protection of children, the elimination of racism and every other prejudice.
In order to praise the future of nations and world society, this AMUN edition chose SOCHUM to approach the matter of Child Marriage, a traditional worldwide practice, where every minute 28 girls get married, summing up about 700 million of them nowadays. Although boys also are married in early years, the incidence is expressively disproportional and the vulnerability they are exposed to can account for violence, when raped; health, when forced to have kids in an early age; and human rights matters, because human rights are women rights.
Compelled marriage reminds western minds of faraway lands where religion suppresses women choices. It is undeniable that those happen, but, have all sides been heard? What usually happens is a preconception, of the conditions and approaches in those countries, by the non-affected ones. Since the first topic raises likely prejudices, a second topic will be engendering: Combating intolerance and stigmatization based on belief.
Religion is a serious matter, which guides people’s culture, not only on permitting this above-mentioned tradition but also on how to act, dress; in what to believe and what values to pursuit; it can draw social environments and also lead to arguments with those who are not believers of the same belief. Every human being has the right to follow their own path, as long it does not hurt another, but ever since History has started, humans fight big fights towards the imposition of their own paths on other believers. Nowadays, religions are stigmatized because of their practices and even judged as a synonym of terrorism, having their believers expelled from countries and also killed by intolerants. What this committee aims to encourage is the discussion on how those fights are never fair or worth it.
Shangri-la Dialogue - Special Session (Shangri-la)
Topic A: Nuclear Dangers in the Asia Pacific
Topic B: Armed Forces and New Terrorist Acts as Threats to Human Rights
The North Korean nuclear issue has its start on the Cold War period when the United States and the Soviet Union established many regional zones of influence throughout the entire globe. Supported by Moscow, Kim Il-sung started the development of the North Korean nuclear program, which was considered to be an important asset to their survivor and national sovereignty. There were many attempts to stop this nuclear development, where Pyongyang did have gathered along with Washington, but after a few meetings, the situation would have deteriorated again. Nowadays, the relation between the United States and North Korea escalated once again, when U.S. President, Donald Trump, affirmed that his administration would treat North Korea with “fire and fury” if the so-called “rogue state” continued its bellicose missile and nuclear tests. Since Kim Jong-un decided to continue such activities, the situation became more sensitive. However, with the participation of North Korea in the Winter Olympics, held in South Korea, the approximation between the Pyongyang and Seoul leaves a new chapter of hope.
On the other hand, Myanmar faces a long-standing humanitarian crisis, where the Rohingya people suffer from the ethnic disparities inside the country. The Rohingya are an ethnic Muslim minority and they differ from Myanmar’s dominant Buddhist groups ethnically, linguistically, and religiously. The situation is dangerous because these Muslim populations do not have the guarantee of their human rights, once the Myanmar government refuses to grant the Rohingya citizenship. Therefore, the vast majority of the group’s members have no legal documentation, effectively making them stateless. It is important to remind that both situations are on the agenda of various multilateral caucuses and both have been developing for over sixty years in Asia, but neither of them reached a solution. That is why both topics will be approached by the Shangri-La Dialogue committee.
The IISS Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore is the most important regular gathering of defense professionals in the Asia-Pacific region, a vital annual fixture in the diaries of ministers and their civilian and military chiefs of staff. Since its launch in 2002, the Dialogue has built confidence and fostered practical security cooperation, by facilitating easy communication and fruitful contact among the region’s most important defense and security policymakers. The SLD’s agenda is intentionally wide-ranging, reflecting the many defense and security challenges facing a large and diverse region. Each year it recognizes emerging as well as established regional security concerns.
Since the Shangri-La Dialogue is a Minister of Defense forum level, this committee brings new challenges to the delegates. The formal and informal levels are equally important for the resolution of North Korea and Myanmar situations. Thus, the delegates will experience a different kind of modeling, once they will be pushed to go beyond formal discussions in order to reach an understanding and a consensus about both topics.
Assembleia Geral da União Africana
Tópico A: Deslocamento Forçado de Populações Vulneráveis
Tópico B: Violência Contra a Mulher em Zonas de Refugiados
A União Africana foi criada em 2002, mas nunca esteve tão centrada nos holofotes midiáticos quanto ultimamente. A edição de 2018 do AMUN simulará a Assembleia dessa organização, colocando em questão o Deslocamento Forçado de Populações Vulneráveis e a Violência Contra a Mulher em Zonas de Refugiados, portanto, abordando dois temas recorrentes na seara internacional e carentes de debate e busca por soluções viáveis.
Simular assuntos tão delicados requer empatia e compreensão da importância que esforços conjuntos podem trazer. O continente Africano é diverso e complexo, reunir seus representantes traz a força e a voz que seus 54 países necessitam para resolver seus problemas internos, mas mais do que isso, se apropriar deles frente a comunidade internacional.
O recorte temático do deslocamento de populações em África já é um movimento contrário ao silenciamento que o mesmo problema, embora com suas próprias peculiaridades, causa na Europa. Não existem hierarquias no trato da questão, mas a visibilidade e, portanto, cuidado que se destina a este continente torna-se maior que àquele. o AMUN busca então, mudar - ou executar manutenção - da latência dos países africanos.
Ainda, enfatizar as populações vulneráveis, é um esforço no sentido de esmiuçar as situações das minorias que passam por dificuldades, por serem mais expostas nesse movimento do que o simples debater de um problema generalizado. Neste mesmo sentido, o tópico B abarcará mulheres, chamadas Minorias pela desigualdade imposta a elas no decorrer da História, em zonas de refugiados. Isso se dá, porque a suscetibilidade destas a sofrer nessas situações, rende preocupações que são tão abrangentes quanto à situação em si.
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)
Topic A: Death Penalty - Extrajudicial, Summary or Arbitrary Executions
Topic B: Issues of Prision Population
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is responsible for the promotion and protection of human rights in all UN member states. It has currently 47 seats, and the members are elected for three-year terms.
Engaged in many humanitarian affairs, it addresses to the voice of minority groups who are suffering in their country, giving a spotlight to the international community about those issues. The main subjects of the UNHRC are: aid for refugees; freedom of speech and beliefs; repudiation of prejudice; and promotion of women’s, LGBT, racial and ethnic minorities’ rights.
Addressing the issue of the prison population is defending the humanity of those who were marginalized and forgotten. Situations as overcrowded spaces, mismanagement of resources and physical and mental abuse of the prison people are recurring problems in many prisons around the world.
On the other hand, death sentences that are given without the State’s consent and the trial is a modality that is still vigorous in the contemporaneous society, where people seek justice with their own hands. The committee is intended to approach this problematic viewing the reasons and detect the possible solutions and preventions for it.
Concluding, the motto of 21st AMUN, “Bring down walls, build up connections” help this committee to find the ideal solutions for the issues above. When people connect, leaving prejudice and intolerance behind, and when they feel empathic about someone, they fight for fairness and oppose to human rights abuse. They see people without the barriers of the stereotype of someone’s beliefs and behaviors. That is what the UNHRC intend to foment in the discussion: embrace people as they are and help them overcome their preconceived idea of those people.
United Nations Security Council
Topic: Open Agenda
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the central committees of the United Nations, and it is responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security (UNSC, 2016). The Committee was created by the UN Charter, and, in order to guarantee the prospect of avoiding international conflicts and maintaining the peace, UNSC’s decisions are mandatory, which means that the resolutions approved by the UNSC are binding to all UN Member States.
However, the traditional international warfare that the UNSC was created to avoid is no longer the predominant type of conflicts. Non-state actors have become increasingly important in security, social and political issues; their actions have never been more substantial. Therefore, the UNSC can no longer focus solely on traditional interstate conflicts, and must, therefore, discuss the actions of Non-state actors, in order to maintain peace in the current world.
The 21st AMUN’s UNSC will have an open agenda as its topic, meaning that the delegates will discover the precise topic for discussion on days prior to the event – making the experience similar to the legitimate Security Council. By implementing mechanisms that are new to MUNs, this committee will be a unique experience aimed both at veteran delegates and to new participants.
Thus, a new sense of urgency is born. Conflicts that endanger international peace are growing constantly, making thousands of innocent people their victims, showing no signs of stoppage. The Security Council must play a key role in achieving peace and establishing order in these situations. The question is: are you ready to do so?